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The subject of rape and sexual assault is a grim topic, but one that Anna Clark has masterfully described in this book, highlighting the phenomenon of rape in the transition period of late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century England. The purpose of the book is to target the notion that even today counsels women to remain indoors at night in order to avoid rape. Clark explains that this ‘rape as warning’ technique is in fact a myth brought about by historical interventions of patriarchy, the illusion of chivalry, and the culture changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Victorianism. The intent is to first prove the historical invention of the rape as warning myth, and then connect it to thoughts on rape today. Clark uses sources such as court records, depositions of the victim and accused (for these cases rarely made it to court), and newspapers to demonstrate her findings. She contrasts instances of rape from London and Yorkshire to provide a more regionally accurate picture of the amount and types of sexual assaults that were reported from 1770-1845. The time period was chosen in order to display the culture shift from libertarianism to Victorianism in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. She also notes that these sources are in no way intended to be complete - acknowledging that most rape cases were never reported. The introduction mentions that in the move towards Victorianism the discussion of rape was considered too course and inappropriate for discussion, but Clark uses a Foucauldian model to explain that this period was not one of sexual silence, but one of discourses about sexuality that sought to define deviant behavior along patriarchal lines, enhancing the idea of male dominance and, in contrast, women’s oppression. Rape, as defined by Clark, is more a means of exerting patriarchal control rather than receiving sexual satisfaction. Also highlighted is the importance of the British class structure to rape myths. For example, some used rape as a way to depict the seduction of innocent working-class women by lascivious aristocrats to strengthen protests about class domination. The seduced maiden myth excused men from being responsible for their actions, promoting the idea that working women were mere property and could be done with as a man wished for displays of masculinity. Clark provides detail regarding how rape victims were treated by the patriarchal justice system or by popular culture. The justice system almost always sided with the rapist except for when a husband or father sued for damages to their ‘property’ (wife or daughter). This idea of women as property rose out middle class identity development and the introduction of separate spheres- one public, one private in the home where women belonged. The victim, no matter the circumstances of her rape, was seen henceforward as tainted and of no value, as taking away a woman’s chastity meant that she was a woman fallen from all good society. Because of this, the victim’s testimony was not considered adequate for prosecution of her own rape trial as her credibility left with her chastity. The notion was that women were somehow at fault for their rape. Some courts even went so far as asking the woman to present proof of ejaculation as evidence of rape, a nearly impossible task, but seen by both doctors and lawyers as satisfying their desire for tangible evidence and giving men the ability to define rape using their own moral judgement rather than by anything from the victim, adding further to the cycle of humiliation the woman experienced on all spheres. The shift in centuries altered the view of women by men from being too strong to be able to be attacked by one man alone to being a delicate creature needing protection by chivalric gentlemen. Clark explains chivalry was nothing but a racket made to manipulate women’s fear with words of protection and then “losing control” (for rape was no longer acceptable behavior for a gentleman in Victoria’s England as it was in the Libertine eighteenth century) and becoming the very thing the woman feared. In sum, the general opinion of the day was that proper women were expected to stay at home out of the public eye and then their worth would remain intact. All women who did walk the streets at night, even out of necessity for work or family reasons, were considered immodest and fair game to any man. I believe Clark has proved that the rape as warning myth originated within eighteenth century English historical patriarchy. In the final chapter she states that while this myth still prevails today, what has changed is a woman’s growing ability to define their right to desire or refuse and to speak out when that definition is violated. Perhaps this increased understanding can strengthen their voices.

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